The Features of Non Technical Measures and Their Importance in Cost Effective Abatement of Air Pollutant Emissions - Applied to Two Meta-Analyses

The overall purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of non-technical measures (NTM) and technical measures (TM). This requires an acceptable definition of NTM. There are two main questions discussed in this study in connection to the definition of NTM. Firstly, the distinction between technical measures and non-technical measures, and secondly the distinction between non-technical measures and policy instruments. In many studies policy instruments are frequently seen as NTM, but it is important to stress the difference between NTM and policy instruments. NTM relate to the actual emission reducing actions, while policy instruments relate to the means used to enforce abatement options, and may lead to both TM and NTM. The definition proposed in this study to separate TM from NTM, is based on the changes of input and output when incorporating a measure, instead of only focus on changes in emission factors and activity data. Based on the chosen definition of NTM, the project carried out two meta-analyses in the agricultural- and energy sectors. Since data on the shipping sector was not enough to allow a meta-analysis this sector was studied in a descriptive manner. The results of the meta regression for the agricultural and the energy sector included in this study give some insight on the cost effectiveness of NTM compared to TM. Depending on the nature of the subject i.e., a review of NTM, the data has been very scarce to allow consistent and representative results for all European countries; Most of the NTM studied have only one study as origin. Further, the reviewed studies are often related to the emissions of different pollutants, which have led to the use of different conversion factors in order run the meta regression

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