Composition of exhaust from a ship diesel engine using heavy fuel oil (HFO) was investigated onboard a large cargo vessel. The emitted particulate matter (PM) properties related to environmental and health impacts were investigated along with composition of the gas-phase emissions. Mass, size distribution, chemical composition and microphysical structure of the PM were investigated. The emission factor for PM was 5.3 g (kg fuel)1. The mass size distribution showed a bimodal shape with two maxima: one in the accumulation mode with mean particle diameter DP around 0.5 mm and one in the coarse mode at DP around 7 mm. The PM composition was dominated by organic carbon (OC), ash and sulphate while the elemental carbon (EC) composed only a few percent of the total PM. Increase of the PM in exhaust upon cooling was associated with increase of OC and sulphate. Laser analysis of the adsorbed phase in the cooled exhaust showed presence of a rich mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species with molecular mass 178-300 amu while PM collected in the hot exhaust showed only four PAH masses. Microstructure and elemental analysis of ship combustion residuals indicate three distinct morphological structures with different chemical composition: soot aggregates, significantly metal polluted; char particles, clean or containing minerals; mineral and/or ash particles. Additionally, organic carbon particles of unburned fuel or/and lubricating oil origin were observed. Hazardous constituents from the combustion of heavy fuel oil such as transitional and alkali earth metals (V, Ni, Ca, Fe) were observed in the PM samples. Measurements of gaseous composition in the exhaust of this particular ship showed emission factors that are on the low side of the interval of global emission factors published in literature for NOx, hydrocarbons (HC) and CO.
Nyckelord: Ship emissions, Particulate matter, Chemical composition, Elemental composition, Microphysical characteristic, NOx, CO, SO2, Hydrocarbons
Författare: Jana Moldanova, Erik Fridell, Olga Popovicheva, Benjamin Demirdjian, Victoria Tishkova, Allessandro Faccinetto, Christian Focsa
Publicerad i: Atmospheric Environment, Volume 43, 2632-2641. 2009