Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme. Subreport 3: Pigments
IVL has performed a 'screening study' of the ester octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the screening were to determine if octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate is present in different matrices in the Swedish environment, and if so, at what concentrations. In total 64 samples were analysed representing soil, surface water, sediment, biota (fish), influent and effluent waters and sludge from STPs, storm waters, and leachate water and sludge from landfills. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate was found in all analysed STP sludge samples. It was also found in all analysed influent water samples, but concentrations were generally lower or below the detection limit in effluent water. Thus, removal of the substance from the water phase takes place during the waste water treatment process, plausible by absorption to sludge. Concentrations in the same range as in influent waters or higher was also found in the storm water samples. The chemical could also be detected just above the detection limit in two out of three fish samples, but not in soil, surface water or sediment from the city of Stockholm. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate could not be detected in any of the samples from background areas. All together, this screening study shows that diffuse emissions of octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate in the urban environment take place, resulting in exposure to and uptake in biota. Due to the limited ecotoxicological data available, it is not possible to determine the risk of its presence in the environment, but based on animal studies the chemical is considered to have a low hazard potential for human health.