Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 3: UV-filters
SummaryAs an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study concerning UV-filters. Sunscreen lotions are used to protect the skin against sunburn and skin cancer caused by the UV (ultra violet) radiation of sunlight. The active moieties in sunscreens (UVfilters) are usually aromatic compounds which absorb UV-radiation and release the energy as low energy rays. Surface water collected on bathing places in the summer contained 12 UV-filters out of 13 measured whereas in sediment 10 out of 13 were found. Four of the UV-filters were also found in fish samples. UV-filters were detected in surface water early in the spring (before swimming season) but the concentration and frequency clearly increased during the summer. All measured UV-filters were found in STP effluent water, and all but two in STP sludge. Comparisons of measured concentrations of UVfilters with QSAR derived PNECs and also available experimental ecotoxicity data indicate that several of the included UV-filters pose a potential environmental risk.