Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, and estimated health impacts 2019
The Swedish population exposure to concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was quantified for 2019, and the health and associated economic consequences were calculated. Most of the population was exposed to levels below the environmental standards. However, compared to the recently updated WHO 2021 Air Quality Guidelines, our calculations indicate that 82% of the population is exposed to unacceptable levels of PM2.5, and 11 % to unacceptable levels of NO2. We estimate a total of 6740 deaths per year. The health impacts can be estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~168 billion SEK.