Measures to reduce emissions of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCP) in the Nordic countries
A number of measures to abate emissions of SLCPs are, to varying degrees, already in place in the Nordic countries. This report presents the results from the third task in the project, an assessment of efficient measures to abate SLCP emissions in the Nordic countries.
A number of measures to abate emissions of SLCPs are, to varying degrees, already in place in the Nordic countries. National emission projections, taking existing legislation and measures into account, show that total emissions of black carbon (BC) and methane (CH4) are expected to decrease to 2030. In the future, residential biomass combustion and transport will be important sources of BC, as will agriculture and waste management for CH4-emissions. The objective in this part of the project was to identify efficient additional measures to reduce emissions of SLCPs beyond the current emission projections.
The assessment primarily covers BC and CH4, but as BC is part of emitted particulate matter (PM2.5) and many measures are focusing on PM2.5, reduction of PM2.5 emissions is also included in the analysis. Both technical measures, such as filters or improved technologies, and non-technical measures, such as promoting behavioural changes favouring reduced emissions are discussed in this report.
A combined SLCP analysis using the GAINS model (and based on the ECLIPSE project results for the Nordic countries) was carried out and additional technical measures for reduced SLCP emissions in the individual Nordic countries were assessed. The analysis shows that in order to reach the modelled technical emission reduction potential for black carbon, measures within the residential wood combustion sector should be prioritized. Among the efficient technical measures are replacement of older boilers and heating stoves with new appliances, installation of ESP (electrostatic precipitator) and high-efficiency dedusters, and fuel switch from wood logs to pellets. According to the model results, these measures would provide the highest reduction potential for BC for Denmark, Finland and Sweden, while for Norway good practice in flaring in oil and gas industries has the highest reduction potential. In Iceland the introduction of EUR 6/VI on 100% of road diesel transport is most important.