Atmospheric concentrations of organophosphates - At background stations in Sweden (Råö, Norunda) and Finland (Pallas)
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants, plasticizers, anti-foaming agents and as additives in lubricants and hydraulic fluids. They can be found for example in air, deposition and snow, both near and far from emission sources. In this study, OPEs were analyzed in air samples from two stations in Sweden (Råö, Norunda) and one in Finland (Pallas) for one year (2018). For TCEP and EHDPP, a geographical variation could be distinguished with highest concentrations in the north and lowest in the south. Seasonal variations were observed for TCPP and TCEP at Råö, where higher levels were measured during the summer. TEP, which is reported to be produced in large quantities, was not detected in high concentrations in air at any of the stations. Results in this study were comparable with literature data. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that the existing network of measurement stations, monitoring frequency, sampling and analysis procedures used within the national environmental monitoring (EMEP), can be used to measure OPEs in air as well.