A framework for specifying how to develop users’ needs and requirements in an iterative process.

The aim of D5.1 is to provide a framework for the process to specify stakeholders’ needs and requirements in WP4 and the collection and analysis of data from the demonstration cases, with regard to organizational and social enablers for development, implementation, use and successive evaluation of SCOREwater technologies and services (WP5 and further to WP6 and WP8).  A framework contains the salient experiences, approaches, theories and perspectives in a field from which prescriptive models and other tools can be built.

This deliverable provides more knowledge on four areas with high relevance for the project: a) behavioural, organizational and legal/regulatory barriers/enablers; b) iterative user-expert development processes and relevant standards for end-user development; c) methods and state of the art for sewage sociology; and d) implementation and evaluation research. Together, these focus areas provide a background of principles that guide the implementation of the demonstration cases, in particular in terms of stakeholder engagement and adapting to user needs in WP4 and for an effective implementation of the ICT tools and for their evaluation.

In later phases in the project the receiving work packages needs to pick those tools that suits them, based on the analysis for each case study in WP1 and WP4 (and as part of WP6) and adapt them to achieve overall project goals as well as local goals. The framework is based upon a literature review of state-of-the-art knowledge and best practices, as well as consultation with partners regarding scope and presentation. The review highlights important issues to address and provide approaches to that.  The literature review highlights that water is often managed through a network of public and private actors at different levels, with different perspectives and goals, and different strategies and instruments.  There is a need to involve both the users of innovative ICT solutions as well as a broad spectrum of other stakeholders (e.g. municipal and state officials and policy makers) in technology development processes. Different involvement methods need to be chosen based on type of user or stakeholder addressed, but also based on the goals of the involvement action, or the type of knowledge the activity should bring to the process.

The literature review provides knowledge on key principles to keep in mind when engaging stakeholders.  Tools and approaches from sewage sociology will be used to design the demonstration case in Barcelona. Sewage sociology refers to the scientific use of biomarkers in waste and waste-water to measure health and environmental characteristics together with known demographic data. The overview in this report shows how sewage sociology is a powerful tool through which urban planning and health authorities should work together to improve citizen’s quality of life.  The review also discussed the issues related to implementation and evaluation of the SCOREwater technologies and services. The strategies and approaches for implementation and evaluation needs to be designed beforehand, in collaboration with developers and stakeholders. Implementation of SCOREwater technologies and services in the demonstration cases needs to be both adapted to local context and be able to provide generalizable conclusions for further dissemination and exploitation. It needs to be based upon an analysis of change mechanisms, locally for each case and generic for the water sector. Likewise, the strategy for evaluating the ICT tools needs to be designed beforehand and be integrated into the implementation efforts. The framework provides more specific advice, based upon the review on various good practices for identifying stakeholders, user groups, their needs and requirements, for an iterative development, implementation, use and successive evaluation of the SCOREwater tools. The framework is supported by a list of resources to be used when designing strategies, to be found in the annexes. 

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